Generational Unfairness in Pensions
California Governor Jerry Brown has led an effort to pass some changes to current state employee pension benefits that will affect new employees by raising their retirement age, capping their potential benefits, and requiring both new employees and some current workers to pay at least half of the cost of their pensions.
At Public Sector, Inc. Steve Greenhut explain that the savings from these changes won’t be felt for years to come:
It’s clear the reform would do little to touch current unfunded pension liabilities, estimated in California at as much as a half-trillion dollars, but will bring in reforms in decades after new hires start retiring.
The changes are projected to save state taxpayers between $40 billion and $60 billion. With these changes, California’s pension fund will still be underfunded by about $450 billion, calculated using the risk-free discount rate (pdf). If policymakers refuse to make further changes to the system, this remaining debt will require greater sacrifices from new workers and future taxpayers.
This unfunded liability represents generational unfairness. Today’s taxpayers are paying for current retirees who provided state services in the past. Likewise, the new reforms require sacrifices primarily from new workers. They will be receiving fewer benefits while paying into a system that benefits current workers and retirees.
States have unfunded pension liabilities due to management mistakes of the past. However, the costs of these mistakes are being felt today. Going forward policymakers should see the pain they impose on younger workers and make every effort not to repeat this pattern.
The longer that reforms are delayed, the greater inter-generational inequity grows. While California has the largest unfunded pension liability, it is not alone. Because Illinois has failed to take significant actions to address the state’s debt and pension liabilities, S&P downgraded its bond rating to A-plus with a negative outlook. This makes it S&P’s second-lowest-rated state above only California. Moody’s ranks Illinois’ bonds the lowest of all states. These ratings will be accompanied by higher bond yields on Illinois’ debt for future taxpayers. This will saddle them with more of their tax dollars going to debt service rather than current state services.
Policymakers have every incentive to engage in policies that benefit current voters at the expense of future voters because they want to receive credit for providing services that exceed their cost in the present. The only way to correct this tendency is for voters to demand that lawmakers do not force the cost of current programs onto those who do not have a voice in today’s elections.